Tag Archives: river grapes

Cooksville Creek

Monday, September 1, 2019

Cooksville Creek in Mississauga has its entire watercourse within the city and in fact it even flows under Square One Shopping Centre.  Over the years it has come under great stress as a result of the changing nature of the watershed development.  With so much of the surrounding areas now paved over and developed the flash flooding of the creek has become a serious problem leading to erosion and property damage.  There are 304 buildings in the lower watershed that are subject to flooding in a 100-year event like Hurricane Hazel.  The city is currently implementing new flood control measures including widening of the creek bed south of Mississauga Valley Boulevard.  We found free parking at the Mississauga Valley Community Centre.  From there we went to explore the construction of the flood controls on the creek.

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The main flow of Cooksville Creek has been diverted into a pipe while they widen and deepen the channel.

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The woodlands on either side of the ravine are home to a large population of squirrels.  There is a constant food supply for them in the cone and nut trees and both black and red squirrels can be seen collecting food for their winter supply.  Having a good food supply for one species means that they will become a good food source for another predator.  We saw this red-tailed hawk sitting in a tree keeping an eye open for breakfast.

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The danger exists in the air from the hawks and on the ground from the coyotes.  The mud in the exposed creek bed has been crossed over many times with coyote tracks.

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The river grapes are starting to ripen along the sides of the trail.  The crop this year looks to be doing very well with lots of fruit for the wild animals to feed on.  Coyote feces that we see along the trail seems to contain a lot of seeds and fruit husks and this isn’t unusual in the summer and fall as they supplement their diet.

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The lower part of this reach was reworked a couple of years ago to increase stability of the sides and create retaining pools to hold the water during flood events.

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The transition point between the section that was completed and that which has not been touched recently.  Although some sections appear to be quite naturalized they have in fact all been subject to more than one repair since the creek was urbanized in the 1940’s.  Of the 14.9 kilometres of creek there are only 1.2 kilometres that are natural while there are a full 35 kilometres of gabion baskets which are failing.  The flood water has washed in behind them in places causing them to collapse into the creek, further diverting the flow and causing more erosion.

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The mallard ducks that were born this spring have now become fully grown.  We were enjoying watching them walk up the little waterfall in the creek.  Over the years the repairs to the stream have reduced most of the natural pools and riffles in the watercourse.  This is one of the places where the water gets oxygenated.

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It’s the last weekend of the Canadian National Exhibition which always features the famous air show.  On the way back home I would be treated to a squadron flying in formation on their way back to the airport.  Just as the airshow marks the end of the CNE and the unofficial end of summer, nature’s air show marks the return of fall.  We saw a gaggle of geese flying in the “V” formation that they use when flying south,  The strongest birds fly in front while the weaker ones follow in their wind currents.

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There are sections that have not been subject to heavy equipment in recent years.  The undergrowth in these areas is first generation of trees.  There are no large oak or maple trees that one would find in a succession forest.  Where the work was completed in the past few years there are newly planted trees that may some day provide a mature forest.  For now the trees are stripped back away from the edge of the creek so that there is no shade over the water.  This leads to higher water temperatures and destroys the habitats.  Cooksville Creek is essentially a dead creek with nothing but a few water skimmers in the upper reaches.  This loss of riparian vegetation is a contributing factor to the decline of the Red-Sided Dace in the past 30 years.  At one time they would have been populous in Cooksville Creek as they were in most GTA waterways.

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At this time you can’t walk the entire course of Cooksville Creek due to the construction work.  We went through anyway and although it was a holiday Monday there was someone on site who ignored us.  Once you get south of the railway tracks there is a large green space that was formerly occupied by several homes.  This is an interesting place where you can find foundations and driveways that are being overtaken by the new growth of vegetation.

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This area was accessed by Given Road which we have previously described in a post that can be found at the link above.

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Cooksville Creek is a real mess today and you wonder how it can ever recover.  However, if you look closely, every ravine has a set of sewer access points that are dated from the 1950’s and up.  These remind us that there has been heavy equipment in the ravines before and since the infrastructure below will need maintenance at some point, there will be again.

Google Maps Link: Cooksville Creek

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Passmore Forest

Sunday, November 13th, 2016

Passmore Forest is in the neighbourhood of L’Amoreaux in Scarborough.  It is named after Josue L’Amoreaux who lived between 1738 and 1834.  He was one of the first settlers in the area, arriving in 1808.  Josue was a loyalist, of French Huguenot beliefs, who fled to Canada after the American Revolution.  By the 1840’s there were two churches and in 1847 L’Amoreaux was given the designation of School Section #1 for Scarborough Township.  A post office was opened in 1854 but it wasn’t until 100 years later that the community was transformed into suburbia.  West Highland Creek is a tributary of Highland Creek which forms the eastern end of the Scarborough Bluffs.  The creek feeds L’Amoreaux Pond in a park known as L’Amoreaux North Park.

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Passmore Forest is named after Frederick Fortescue Passmore who was born in England in 1824 and emigrated to Canada in 1845.  He served his apprenticeship under Sandford Flemming and was the draftsman on the St. Catharines Town Hall (1849).  In the 1850’s he listed himself as an architect, surveyor, and civil engineer.  Passmore is known for his survey of Scarborough township in 1850 and again in 1862.  There were 15 saw mills operating in the area by the early 1860’s and the amount of forest cover had dropped by 40 percent between the two surveys.  The cover photo shows one of the large pine trees that stand in the woodlot.

Along the side of L’Amoreaux lake, the trail passes this large wasp nest.  Nests grow in proportion to the size of the colony.  Nests will only be used for one season as only the fertilised female will survive the winter.  She will start a new nest in the spring in which to lay her eggs.  When the sterile females are born they become workers who tend the nest and see to its expansion as the colony grows.  Later in the year, the queen will produce some male wasps to fertilize the new generation of queen wasps.  These females will then seek shelter to survive the winter and start the cycle over again.

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Near L’Amoreaux Pond there are two interpretive signs which tell a brief story about a native village that was found here in 2000.  When contractors were preparing to build a subdivision on the property near the pond they found native artefacts just below the top soil.  Experts were called in and before long a 2.6-hectare village belonging to the Huron-Wendat people was uncovered.  Eventually, 17 longhouses were uncovered as well as over 19,000 pieces of stone tools, copper beads, pottery and pipes.  Shells that likely originated on the east coast were found indicating that a vast trading network existed at the time. Estimates are that up to 1,000 people may have lived here for about 50 years.  No signs of fortification were found as there were no fence posts surrounding the village, one of about 25 villages on the north side of the Great Lakes that belonged to the Huron-Wendat.  The name of the village has been lost, but the dig site was named “Alexandra”.  This village was roughly the same size as the one uncovered at Crawford Lake.  There were no burials on the site and after the archaeological dig was completed the developers were allowed to go ahead and build single-family houses on the property.

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A small footbridge crosses the West Highland Creek above a concrete catch basin.  The basin was full of plastic water bottles and other assorted garbage.  The trail leads from the water up a slight incline to Passmore Forest.

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Thunderclouds contain small particles of ice that collide and cause an electrical charge to build up.  Trees and other objects on the ground can also build up an electrical charge and when the charge coming down from the clouds meets that of the tree an exchange of current takes place in what we call a lightning bolt.  This bolt of electricity is very hot, up to 54,000 degrees F.  This is about six times hotter than the surface of the sun and can burn the inside of a tree.  Many forest fires are started by lightning strikes.  The picture below shows the inside of a tree that has been struck by lightning.

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River grapes have taken over a large part of the forest.  Their vines can climb to the tops of some of the tallest trees, reaching up to 115 feet in length.  These longer vines tend to have reduced fruit production with the younger, lower, vines having more grapes.

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Another view across the pond in L’Amoreaux North Park.  The edge of the pond has a paved trail running around it with benches set at intervals for quiet enjoyment.  Ducks, geese and gulls were here on this day but herons are also common.

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Passmore Forest isn’t large, as forests go, but it is a significant percentage of the old growth forest in this area.  F. F. Passmore lives on in the name of this forest as well as Passmore Avenue which has been abandoned in several places.

Google Maps link: Passmore Forest

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